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Старый 17.03.2007, 02:21
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The deleterious effects of iron deficiency

The deleterious effects of iron deficiency and iron deficient anaemia are due partly to impaired delivery of oxygen to the tissues and partly to a deficiency of iron containing compounds, especially enzymes, in various tissues. Restlessness and irritability in children who are deficient in iron has been related to increased concentrations of catecholamines, which return to normal after treatment with iron. Lower IQ scores have been found in UK and American adolescent girls who are deficient in iron. Abnormalities in response to infection have been shown in people who are deficient in iron, where decreased neutrophil function and impaired T cell proliferation occurs. Studies in humans have confirmed the findings from animals of reduced work capacity and poor work performance in iron deficient anaemia. Reduced thermoregulation has also been confirmed in people who are iron deficient where norepinephrine concentration was increased, and differences were found in concentrations of epinephrine, dopamine, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine. Normal concentrations for these parameters were restored after iron supplementation. Hair loss has been reported in women with iron deficiency, which responded to iron supplementation. The quantity of non-haem iron in the brain is to a large extent independent of the iron stores in the body. Overall, 10% of the iron complement of the adult brain is present at birth, and by the age of 10 this has reached 50%; however, not until the early 20s is the full adult complement achieved. Although most of the deleterious effects of iron deficiency can be reversed by appropriate iron supplementation, of concern is the possibility that if during the adolescent years a shortfall exists, then, as in rats, humans may not be able to make up the deficiency by iron supplementation, and adolescent girls may enter adult life with a compromised complement of iron in the brain.

(BMJ 2001;322:1355-1357)
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